Hajj to the Heart

Sufi Journeys across the Indian Ocean

Against the sweeping backdrop of South Asian history, this is a story of journeys taken by sixteenth-century reformist Muslim scholars and Sufi mystics from India to Arabia. At the center is the influential Sufi scholar Shaykh ʿAli Muttaqi and his little-known network of disciples. Scott Kugle relates how ʿAli Muttaqi, an expert in Arabic, scriptural hermeneutics, and hadith, left his native South Asia and traversed treacherous seas to make the Hajj to Mecca. Settling in Mecca, he continued to influence his homeland from overseas. Kugle draws on his original translations of Arabic and Persian manuscripts, never before available in English, to trace ʿAli Muttaqi’s devotional writings, revealing how the Hajj transformed his spiritual life and political loyalties.

This Manifold edition is a collaboration between UNC Press and Emory Center for Digital Scholarship.


  • rights
    We are proud to announce that this book is freely available in an open-access enhanced edition thanks to TOME (Toward an Open Monograph Ecosystem)—a collaboration of the Association of American Universities, the Association of University Presses, and the Association of Research Libraries—and the generous support of Emory University and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Learn more at the TOME website: openmonographs.org.

    Contributors to Digital Edition

    Special thanks to UNC Press production manager Michelle Wallen, for editorial oversight, and to ECDS staff members Steve Bransford, for assistance with video editing and captioning, and Yang Li, for building the enhanced digital edition in Manifold.

  • publisher
    University of North Carolina Press
  • publisher place
    Chapel Hill, NC
  • restrictions
    CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
  • rights holder
    Scott Kugle
  • series title
    Islamic Civilization and Muslim Networks
  • doi